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PINK TOURISM
Holidays of Gay Men and Lesbians (242 HALAMAN) 
CEPAT!!! PERIZINAN UNTUK PENJUALAN BUKU INI SANGAT TERBATAS
(Khusus PINK TOURISM)




Tourism How Affective Management Makes The Difference

334 halaman



TOURISM PRINCIPLES, PRACTICES, PHILOSOPHIES
655 LEMBAR HALAMAN



The Impact of Culture On Tourism
160 Halaman




TOURISM RESEARCH METHODS (METODOLOGI PENELITIAN PARIWISATA)
242 HALAMAN



Why do issues of gender, sexuality and embodiment matter in tourism? Beforeaddressing this question and turning our attention to the implications of genderand embodiment for the tourism industry and its stakeholders, we first need to considertoday’s gendered world and our own gendered academic collectives so thatwe may better understand the power dynamics and discourses which shape tourismtheory and practice. For some contemporary commentators, academic and activistdiscussions about gender are ‘so last century’, a debate out of place in today’s postmodernworld where relativity, fluidity and imagination have replaced universality,fixidity and objectivity, where identities are conceived as performances – mutable,represented, relative and constructed. In such a world the structural inequalitiessuggested by ‘gender’ carry little weight, and concerns about the existence andconsequences of social differences based on genders are seen to be ‘politically oldfashioned (as well as clearly detrimental to one’s career, both inside and outsideacademia)’ (Oakley, 2006, p. 19). Neither is gender ‘sexy’ for the woman on thestreet, and feminism is now so stereotyped and questioned (Chesler, 1997) thatalmost three-quarters of British women say that they are not feminists (available at:www.womankind.org.uk). It seems as though before we have really begun to unpickthe complexities and implications of gender (and certainly before many researchfields – including tourism – have engaged with the nuances of masculin ities),Western societies have already become bored by issues of femininities, masculinitiesand genders. Yet, quite clearly, whatever our social or geographic location, whilstour experiences of (dis)empowerment and (in)equalities may vary, none of us livein equal societies and it is a worrying reality that not one country has yet managedto eliminate the gender gap (World Economic Forum, 2005).In fact, some 40 years after the emergence of the western feminist movement,women everywhere remain severely disadvantaged compared to men across allsocial criteria and classifications. The statistics are truly shocking: the leading causeof injury and death for women worldwide is domestic violence; one in every threewomen is beaten, coerced into sex or abused in some other way (available at: www.amnesty.org.uk), and almost twice as many women as men are without ad equatefood, water, sanitation, health care or education (0.7 billion). In fact, global povertyhas a woman’s face: whilst 1.2 billion people live in poverty, three-quarters of theworld’s poorest people – those living in extreme poverty on less than US$1 a day– are women (Booth-Blair, 2005). Two-thirds of all illiterate adults are women andworldwide almost twice as many girls (85 million) as boys are denied schooling;in Chad fewer than 5% of girls go to school, whilst in Afghanistan the reinvigoratedTaliban has burnt schools and beheaded teachers offering education to girls(Sengupta, 2006). Without comparable education provision, women continue to bedenied access to well-paid formal-sector jobs and advanced opportunities, so thattoday’s figure of almost two-thirds of unpaid family workers being female is unlikelyto improve in the near future.






Surprisingly, despite the fact that coastal tourism resorts are an immensely important tourist space and are dealt with in most postgraduateand undergraduate tourism courses, there are few books whichfocus solely upon them, and there has been limited critical assessment oftheir evolution, planning, development and management. Moreover, themajority of academic research undertaken in this area has beencompleted within Northern and Southern Europe at the expense of awider global consideration, and is overly descriptive in nature, consistingof a collection of theoretically unconnected case studies. This bookaddresses this research vacuum by adopting a thematic framework inwhich to examine coastal tourism resorts in a selected range ofenvironments across the globe. It incorporates a detailed analysis of arange of economic, sociocultural, political and environmental issues thatare being experienced, to differing extents, by coastal tourism resorts thatare at different life-cycle stages of development. By doing so, this book ismore than a mere amalgamation of existing literature, as it aims toadvance conceptual understanding of resort evolution and change. It istherefore aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate courses in tourismin which students are introduced to the importance of coastal tourismresorts and to issues that affect their planning, development andmanagement.The inspiration for this book may be traced back to my doctoral studiesand to Professors Gareth Shaw (University of Exeter) and Allan Williams(London Metropolitan University), who nurtured and developed myinterest in coastal resorts. Since completing this initial piece of research,the dynamics of coastal resorts have continued to remain a source ofenormous fascination for us both. Gareth and I are deeply grateful to agreat many people who together have enabled this book to come tofruition. First and foremost, of course, we are extremely indebted to thebook’s chapter contributors for volunteering to participate in this project,and for providing much interesting material. I would like to thank BillBramwell at Sheffield Hallam University for his insightful conversations,which enabled me to maintain enthusiasm for the book, and for hiscontinued support. In addition, Gareth and I would like to express our appreciation to Helen Jones at the University of Exeter, who skilfully andquickly produced the figures in Chapters 1, 7, 8 and 13. Finally, we wouldlike to thank Channel View Publications for their support with thisproject.


As the editors and contributors were working on this book, one of the mostsevere natural disasters in recorded history struck and devastated manyplaces and communities around the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004,after a suboceanic earthquake generated a vast tsunami. Only 3 yearspreviously, the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001 (9/11) caused greatdamage, suffering and shock in the USA. Both of these events hadsignificant consequences for the operation of tourism businesses. In both ofthese events, tourists and the tourism industry, although gravely affected,were not the most numerous nor the most seriously affected. In theconcluding chapter, we discuss two further crises, the New Orleanshurricane and the strong possibility of a global bird flu pandemic, anddraw lessons from them for the future management of tourism crises.The standard way of assessing the gravity of a tourism crisis is byexpressing it as the number (or proportion) of lost arrivals, visitor nightsor spending, but this is a far lower order of importance than loss of life,infrastructure damage, loss of homes, and economic or cultural damage.Indeed, the situations, problems and responses discussed in this book areoften of a minor order of importance when such devastating events occur.However, it is often the case that long-term recovery for the area is partlydependent on the re-establishment of a viable tourism sector, so it isimportant that we learn from the experience of the types of eventsanalysed here how to manage the tourism aspects of a crisis, and how andwhen to begin restoration of tourist activities following the initial recovery,and rehabilitation of areas which have suffered a major crisis.A crisis can occur at any time, in the most unlikely place and forreasons which may not be apparent until after the event. This book ismainly concerned with reporting and analysing how managers have responded to some of the various crises which have afflicted the tourismindustry in recent years. In the 26 chapters of this book, contributorsexamine international and local events which have disrupted the mainsectors of tourism in many countries around the world.After reading this book, it will be apparent that some crises are largelyrestricted to the tourism industry, and arose from problematiccharacteristics in its own operations. The origins of other crises laycompletely outside the influence of tourism sector managers, and many ofthese crises devastated large areas and killed, injured or damaged manysectors of the local population or key infrastructure and industries.Some of the crises discussed in this book were unexpected andunforecast; in other cases, it was recognized by government or managersthat a disaster might occur at some time, but its probability, what thedisaster would be, its immediate consequences and the steps necessary toovercome it and to resume normality (even if that was to be different fromthe previous norms) were seldom well understood.In the wake of major crises, notably the terrorist attacks on the USA inSeptember 2001, the fears of a widespread epidemic engendered by theoutbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or bird flu, and thetsunami, many academics have turned their attention to betterunderstanding how to analyse crises events.Taken together, the chapters in this book propose improvements tocurrent theories and provide extensive reviews and bibliographies of recenttourism research in this field, while bringing together a collection of studiesof how tourism crisis events have been managed. This chapter now discusses
the varied, complex and changing managerial responses needed to deal witha typical crisis, then presents a brief review of current crisis managementtheory, applying its most salient points to the tourism industry. The chapterconcludes with an overview of the structure and contents of the book.



The tourism industry is like no other economic sector challenged by negative events. Its above average sensitivity towards these kinds of occurrences has given it such an exposed position that it already serves as an early warning indicator of critical situations for other sectors. The destinations and businesses active in tourism have to face these challenges. Some years ago, companies could consider negative events as extraordinary and less likely. However, the developments of the last decade indicate the necessity to make crisis management a permanent part of the practical and scientific considerations. While doing so, organizations are confronted with the fundamental difficulty that despite the best intentions and highest efforts of prevention, risks cannot be completely controlled and therefore totally excluded. Under these circumstances, besides the necessary implementation of measures which minimize risks, it is important to analyse negative events from every angle, to systematically identify critical success factors, to integrate them and take them into account when considering the strategic corporate orientation. Marketing is in this perspective very important. As many crises in tourism are causing impacts on companies and destinations whose products and services are objectively not affected or damaged – in other words subjective distortions of perception are taking place –, it is important to consider the store of knowledge of marketing for coping with crises but also for preventing them. That is the aim of this book, which develops a general framework for crisis management and offers the basis for further analysis. It looks at the important area of prevention but also on how to cope with emerging crises; it discusses strategic dimensions but also operational techniques. It has one overall aim: To ensure a sustainable development for those working in the tourism industry and for those enjoying the services of this sector. For the second edition of this book new chapters have been introduced, several restructured and the overall text has been completely revised and updated. New checklists, descriptive illustrations and additional representative case studies aim at giving a close and realistic insight into the practise of crisis management.While preparing a book like this, which intends to offer a comprehensive approach to the topic of crisismanagement and which, above all, tries to connect the bits and pieces which are so important forunderstanding why some situations occur, in ways that no one would have expected, I had theassistance of an excellent team.Firstly, I want to thank my wife Matilde for supporting me and having the time to discuss all the facetsof this book. Prof. Dr. Peter Keller, a profound expert on the issues of international tourism policy wasagain a great help with his comments and advice. Ute Meyer, Stefanie Theuerkorn, Jens Oliver Glae├čerand Sarah Beswick helped me with plenty of comments to improve the script. Anika Mattheis, MaryenBlaschke, Tamara Nebel, Fabian R├╝tschi assisted me in the research. I also want to thank Prof. Dr.Guillermo Aceves for his valuable comments from a U.S. point of view. 






Tourism and the Economy of Cities There is substantial literature on the way in which cities have been reconfigured or ‘converted’ (Judd and Fainstein, 1999) into centres of consumption, with tourism playing a central role. As Harvey (1989) notes, tourism has both material and symbolic effects: on economic and physical structures, and on representation and image. Although there has been a particular emphasis on former industrial cities – and former industrial areas of large polycentric cities – the argument extends to urban tourism generally. The need for restructuring in the face of economic change and competition leads to product reorganization, product transformation and spatial relocation (Agarwal, 2002). Tourism becomes a more important element in the economy, and efforts are made to transform and vary the offer. Frequently, this involves spatial change as areas are reconfigured as tourism zones or precincts (Hayllar et al., 2008). In a familiar model, a tourist bubble (Judd, 1999) can be created, including a more or less standardized mix of attractions – a museum or gallery, conference centre, entertainment or edutainment, such as an aquarium, branded bars, restaurants and shopping. This is typically located in a former industrial area, with historic buildings restored and revalorized as heritage. Waterfronts have been particularly popular locations (Jones, 1998). Thus, tourism contributes to a process of area ‘regeneration’, in which spaces of industrial production are replaced by consumption of industrial heritage or spaces of leisure, entertainment and predominantly middle-class urban living. Other approaches, intended to be less solipsistic than the tourism bubble, have included the designation of cultural quarters, ethnic quarters and heritage precincts (see Hayllar et al., 2008, for a review of types of tourism precincts in cities). Tourism zones or precincts then have been at the heart of cities and tourism. A number of points follow. First, and most obviously, city tourism is concentrated in particular areas, and not dispersed evenly across the city. Usually the idea of to turists visiting Brussels or Canberra implicitly means visiting very particular areas of the city, usually in the centre; few visitors spend much time in the suburbs (although some visitors aim to experience the city in a different way – see our discussion below). Second, these areas are often themed and planned to lure in and impress the visitor. This has a particular resonance with national capitals, one of the purposes of which has always been to impress the visitor, whether domestic or foreign. How this is done varies: there are big differences between an old imperial capital like London and one like Canberra that is modern and purpose-built. However, inevitably the landscapes of capitals are symbolically rich, achieving their effect through spatial layout, pattern of architecture, monumentality and the nomenclature of public space (Therborn, 2002), in a complex representation of power. At the same time, capital status promotes an accumulation of facilities and assets that attract visitors – national museums, galleries, theatres, opera and performance spaces, and sports arenas, for example. While all cities tend to concentrate symbolic and functional attributes in tourist zones, capitals do so with a particular intensity.



   



Competition in the Tourism Industry Tourism has emerged as one of the largest and the fastest growing industries worldwide in the twentieth century (UNWTO,1 2005; WTTC, 2005). For example, although depressed reaction of the Iraq war and SARS in 2003, global international tourist receipts in 2004 were still around US$623 billion (with a double-digit growth rate of 18.8%) from an estimated 763 million tourists (UNWTO, 2005), despite the reaction to the Iraq war and SARS in 2003. Additionally, the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) predicted that, global tourism output in 2005 would amount to approximately US$ 6.2 trillion, representing 10.6% of world economic output, and 221 million jobs in tourism, representing some 8.3% of worldwide employment. The tourism sector is optimistically over the next decade to realize a real growth rate of output approximately 4.6%, reaching US$ 10.7 trillion by the year 2015. Tourism’s share of global economic output and worldwide employment is expected to reach 11.3% and 8.9%, respectively (WTTC, 2005), in the next 10 years. Due to these great contributions to economic growth, the tourism industry and its related issues have received strong attention, particularly on competitiveness issue. The competitivity of the tourism industry can be illustrated from two perspectives, domestic and international




      

Corporate rivalry, market power and competition issues in tourism An introduction Andreas Papatheodorou Oligopoly as the playground of corporate rivalry and market power Economics are traditionally preoccupied with the achievement of market efficiency. The term ‘market’ has been heuristically used but essentially refers to ‘a group of products that are reasonable substitutes for at least one good in the group and have limited interaction with the rest of the economy’ (Yarrow, 2001). A realistic market definition should step beyond the physical characteristics of the products involved and consider both demand and supply-side substitution, i.e. whether consumers are able to find suitable product or supplier alternatives  (NERA, 2001). The term ‘efficiency’ is three-faceted. Productive efficiency involves market equilibrium at the lowest average total cost and allocative efficiency exists when price is equal to marginal cost and the allocation of resources cannot improve consumer welfare (Pareto optimality). Both dimensions of efficiency may be achieved under perfect competition. This is an idealistic market structure where infinitesimal firms produce a homogeneous product and compete freely against each other for the custom of infinitesimal rational, perfectly informed and mobile consumers. In reality, the closest to perfect competition is monopolistic competition where part of productive and allocative inefficiency is traded for variety and product differentiation. Still, neither perfect nor monopolistic competition is compatible with the third facet of efficiency, namely the dynamic one, which refers to product and process improvements, development and innovation (OXERA, 2002). This is because both market structures result in zero profits in the long run; hence they cannot support research and development, which requires heavy and in most cases unprofitable and non-recoupable (sunk) investment. On the other hand, a monopolist may enjoy super-normal profits, which can be partly used to increase productivity and achieve dynamic efficiency. These profits, however, are associated with productive and allocative inefficiency; moreover, the monopolist has no incentive to invest in technology or other improvements unless contested. In this context and from a rather Schumpeterian point of view, the market structure of oligopoly where few




     

Creating Island Resorts is a study of tropical island resorts, the areas they occupy, the people who live and work there and the tourists who visit them. An island resort is a special place—a pleasure periphery set apart from the mainland and from the mainstream—a community exhibiting many of the key characteristics of postmodernism. This book includes, but goes beyond the more commonly encountered marketing and economic analyses of resort destinations, by examining social, cultural, mythical, environmental, organisational and political dimensions. The study offers a comparative analysis of two specific destination areas— the Mamanuca Islands in Fiji and the Whitsunday Islands in Queensland, Australia with special reference to the Australian market. The book highlights some of the special challenges facing island resort destinations in developing countries such as Fiji, relative to developed countries such as Australia and the differences and similarites between equivalent domestic and international resort destinations. The case material includes consumer focus groups in the key source markets, a detailed telephone survey of travel agents in the same places, and personal interviews with resort managers and with key stakeholders from the public and private sectors. Brian E.M.King is an Associate Professor and Deputy Head of the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne.




     


Cultural Heritage and Tourism in the Developing World is the first book of its kind to synthesize global and regional issues, challenges, and practices related to cultural heritage and tourism, specifically in less-developed nations. The importance of preservation and management of cultural heritage has been realized as an increasing number of tourists are visiting heritage attractions. Although many of the issues and challenges developing countries face in terms of heritage management are quite different from those in the developed world, there is a lack of consolidated research on this important subject. This seminal book tackles the issues through theoretical discourse, ideas, and problems that underlay heritage tourism in terms of conservation, management, economics and underdevelopment, politics and power, resource utilization, colonialism, and various other antecedent notions that have shaped the development of heritage tourism in the less-developed regions of the world. The book is composed of two sections. The first section highlights the broader conceptual underpinnings, debates, and paradigms in the realm of heritage tourism in developing regions. The chapters in this section examine heritage resources and the tourism product; protecting heritage relics, places and traditions; politics of heritage; and the impacts of heritage tourism. The second section examines heritage tourism issues in specific regions, including the Pacific Islands, South Asia, the Caribbean, China and Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, subSaharan Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America. Each region has unique histories, cultures, political traditions, heritages, issues, and problems, and the way these issues are tackled vary from place to place. This volume develops frameworks that are useful tools for heritage managers, planners and policy-makers, researchers, and students in understanding the complexity of cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world. Unlike many other books written about developing regions, this book provides insiders’ perspectives, as most of the empirical chapters are authored by the individuals who live or have lived in the various regions and have a greater understanding of the region’s culture, history, and operational frameworks in the realm of cultural heritage. The richness of this “indigenous” or expert knowledge comes through as each regional overview elucidates the primary challenges and opportunities facing heritage and tourism managers in the less affluent areas of the world. Dallen J. Timothy is Professor of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University, USA. He is Editor of the Journal of Heritage Tourism and also researches tourism issues related to religion, developing countries, planning, and borders. Gyan P. Nyaupane is the graduate program director and assistant professor at Arizona State University, USA. He has research interests in heritage management, conservation, and tourism development in the developing world


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DAN SEMUA BUKU INI DAPAT MENJADI MILIK ANDA SEBAGAI PENAMBAH REFRENSI DALAM PENULISAN SKRIPSI, TESIS, DAN DESERTASI